• 俄方:美方毁坏俄领事机构大门驱动装置进入搜查 2019-09-07
  • 广州计划于7月6日公布中考成绩 8日开始录取 2019-09-07
  • 回复@老老保老张工:那咋分配呢? 2019-08-30
  • 百姓故事:蒋姐姐的旗袍人生 2019-08-25
  • 理论学习--安徽频道--人民网 2019-08-23
  • 四川能投集团党委书记、董事长郭勇荣获“2017 2019-08-23
  • 看看马克思主义是怎样产生的就明白了。 2019-08-16
  • 段春华:绷紧从严从紧这根弦 依法推动消防安全工作 2019-08-10
  • 陕西省贫困村驻村工作队选派管理办法出台 2019-08-10
  • 林志玲现身机场穿粉色上衣变活力少女 2019-08-04
  • 改革开放取得伟大的成绩,不是实事求是的说法,因为不属于改革开放的比改革开放的还多。不是这样,说来看看,以理服人。 2019-08-04
  • 熬夜网购引发头晕恶心 低头族小心患上耳石症 2019-07-22
  • 着汉服喝花酒 这里有一群美女等着你 2019-07-21
  • 推动形成全面开放新格局 开启新时代开放新征程 2019-07-07
  • 中央党校宫力教授作“国际关系新变化与中国外交战略新布局”专题报告 2019-07-07
  • Singapore Government
    Font size

    No results found.

    湖北体彩11选5走势图 / FOREIGN POLICY / Key Issues / Pedra Branca

    湖北体彩十一选五走势:Pedra Branca

    湖北体彩11选5走势图 www.mekspa.com
    Pedra Branca is an island located at the eastern entrance of the Straits of Singapore, about 24 nautical miles east of Singapore. The British colonial government took possession of the island over 160 years ago to build Horsburgh Lighthouse and other structures on it. Since then, Singapore has exercised continuous sovereignty over the entire island and its adjacent waters.

    The oldest feature on the island is the Horsburgh Lighthouse, which was built by the British between 1847 and 1851. Today, Pedra Branca also hosts a military rebroadcast station, a helipad, a desalination plant and a communications tower. Pedra Branca is also home to the keepers of Horsburgh Lighthouse.

    To the south of Pedra Branca are two maritime features: Middle Rocks and South Ledge. Middle Rocks consists of two clusters of rocks situated 0.6 nautical miles south of Pedra Branca. South Ledge is a low-tide elevation (a feature that is submerged at high tide) further south, 2.1 nautical miles off Pedra Branca. 

    Beginnings of the Dispute

    In 1979, Malaysia published a map which claimed the island as hers. In response, Singapore lodged a formal protest with Malaysia in early 1980, to assert that Pedra Branca belonged to Singapore. 

    As the two sides were unable to resolve the matter through bilateral negotiations, both countries agreed to resolve their differences peacefully through a third party by bringing the territorial dispute to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for decision. Singapore first proposed submitting the dispute to the ICJ in 1989.  Malaysia accepted this proposal in 1994.

    The Special Agreement (a formal agreement that was needed for the submission of the dispute to the ICJ) was signed on 6th February 2003 by the Foreign Ministers of both countries, and formally notified to the ICJ on 24 July 2003. The ICJ was requested to determine whether sovereignty over (a) Pedra Branca; (b) Middle Rocks; and (c) South Ledge belonged to Malaysia or Singapore.

    Written and Oral Proceedings

    In accordance with the terms of the Special Agreement, the ICJ scheduled three rounds of written pleadings, which were to be exchanged simultaneously. These were submitted on 25 March 2004, 25 January 2005 and 25 November 2005.  

    Both Singapore and Malaysia made oral arguments before the ICJ from 6-23 November 2007. These hearings were open to the public and were held at the ICJ, at the Peace Palace in The Hague.

    The Parties' Arguments

    Singapore contended that Pedra Branca was terra nullius, prior to the British Crown’s possession of the island in the mid-1800s. Singapore’s title to Pedra Branca was based upon the British authorities in Singapore having taken lawful possession of the island for the construction of Horsburgh Lighthouse, and Singapore - the lawful successor to the British Crown - having continuously and openly exercised sovereignty over the entire island and its surrounding waters thereafter. Furthermore, in 1953, Johor stated in official correspondence with Singapore that it did not claim ownership over the island. Malaysia also published a series of official maps from 1962 to 1975 depicting Pedra Branca as belonging to Singapore. 

    Singapore further argued that sovereignty of Middle Rocks and South Ledge went together with the sovereignty over Pedra Branca.

    Malaysia argued that it had title to all three features, based on the original title to Pedra Branca having resided with its predecessor, the Sultanate of Johor.

    Transcripts of the oral arguments are available here, and a summary of the case is available here.

    Outcome of the Case

    On 23 May 2008, the ICJ issued its judgment, in which it decided that sovereignty over Pedra Branca belongs to Singapore, sovereignty over Middle Rocks belongs to Malaysia, and sovereignty over South Ledge belongs to the State in the territorial waters of which it is located. 

    In the case of Pedra Branca, the ICJ held that while the Sultanate of Johor had original title to Pedra Branca, sovereignty over the island had passed to Singapore by 1980 (when the dispute crystallised). This was demonstrated by the concrete acts of sovereignty conducted over the island by Singapore and its predecessors, taken together with the failure of Malaysia and its predecessors to respond to these acts.

    Post-Judgment

    After the ICJ’s Judgment was released, both Singapore and Malaysia agreed to abide by the ICJ’s ruling. A ‘Malaysia-Singapore Joint Technical Committee on the Implementation of the ICJ Judgment on Pedra Branca, Middle Rocks and South Ledge’ (MSJTC) was formed by both countries to implement the ICJ’s Judgment. Both countries have agreed that the next step would be for the MSJTC to move into the delimitation of maritime boundaries. 

    On February 2017, Malaysia filed an application for revision of the ICJ’s 2008 Judgment. Under Article 61 of the Statute of the ICJ, an application for revision of a Judgment may be made only when it is based upon the discovery of some fact of such a nature as to be a decisive factor, and which was, when the Judgment was given, unknown to the Court and the party claiming revision, provided such ignorance was not due to negligence. Such an application must be made within ten years of the date of the Judgment, and at latest within six months of the discovery of the new fact. Singapore filed its Written Observations on the admissibility of Malaysia’s revision application with the ICJ on 24 May 2017. Malaysia subsequently filed its Additional Written Observations on 11 December 2017, following which Singapore filed its Written Comments on Malaysia's Additional Written Observations on 12 February 2018.

    On 30 June 2017, Malaysia filed a request for interpretation of the ICJ’s 2008 Judgment. Pursuant to Article 60 of the Statute of the ICJ, if there is a dispute as to the meaning or scope of judgment, the Court shall construe it upon the request of any party. Malaysia’s request for interpretation was additional to, and separate from, its revision application. Unlike a revision application which seeks to revise or alter judgment based on purported newly-discovered facts, an interpretation application seeks to clarify a judgment. Singapore filed its Written Observations on Malaysia's request for interpretation of the ICJ's 2008 Judgement with the ICJ on 30 October 2017. Malaysia subsequently filed its Written Comments on Singapore's Written Observations on 15 February 2018. Thereafter, Singapore filed its Written Response to Malaysia's Written Comments on 23 April 2018. 

    On 28 May 2018, Malaysia informed the ICJ that it would discontinue the proceedings for both the revision and interpretation cases that it had initiated earlier. On 29 May 2018, Singapore informed the ICJ that it agreed with Malaysia's request for discontinuance. On the same day, the ICJ informed Malaysia and Singapore that the Court had placed on record the discontinuance, by agreement of the Parties, of both sets of proceedings instituted by Malaysia against Singapore, and directed that the cases be removed from the Court's list.

    Relevant Links

     

    MFA Press StatementsICJ Press ReleasesICJ Judgment | Speeches / TranscriptsMSJTC Joint Press Statements

    MFA Press Statements

    2018

    2017

    2008

    2007

    2006

    2005

    2003

    2002

    ICJ Press Releases

    2017

    2008

    2007

    2006

    2005

    2003

    2017

    2017

    2014

    2013

    2009

    2008

    2007

    2006

    2005

    2004

    2003

    2002

    2000

    MSJTC Joint Press Statements

    2013

    2012

    2010

    2008

     
     

    Travel Page

  • 俄方:美方毁坏俄领事机构大门驱动装置进入搜查 2019-09-07
  • 广州计划于7月6日公布中考成绩 8日开始录取 2019-09-07
  • 回复@老老保老张工:那咋分配呢? 2019-08-30
  • 百姓故事:蒋姐姐的旗袍人生 2019-08-25
  • 理论学习--安徽频道--人民网 2019-08-23
  • 四川能投集团党委书记、董事长郭勇荣获“2017 2019-08-23
  • 看看马克思主义是怎样产生的就明白了。 2019-08-16
  • 段春华:绷紧从严从紧这根弦 依法推动消防安全工作 2019-08-10
  • 陕西省贫困村驻村工作队选派管理办法出台 2019-08-10
  • 林志玲现身机场穿粉色上衣变活力少女 2019-08-04
  • 改革开放取得伟大的成绩,不是实事求是的说法,因为不属于改革开放的比改革开放的还多。不是这样,说来看看,以理服人。 2019-08-04
  • 熬夜网购引发头晕恶心 低头族小心患上耳石症 2019-07-22
  • 着汉服喝花酒 这里有一群美女等着你 2019-07-21
  • 推动形成全面开放新格局 开启新时代开放新征程 2019-07-07
  • 中央党校宫力教授作“国际关系新变化与中国外交战略新布局”专题报告 2019-07-07
  • 搜狐彩票平台 棒球与垒球的区别 平码4中4 双色球走势图浙江 超级大乐透彩票走势图 七星彩开奖公告 刮刮乐中奖 海快三 22选5中奖规则及奖金 南粤36选7基本走势 新加坡金沙洋妞 男子网球比分 1680100澳洲幸运5 江西时时彩几分钟开奖 全民十三水怎么玩